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The gravitational nature of electricity and magnetism (hypothesis).

 

Introduction.

Currently, there is a definition of the electric field as the directed (ordered) motion of charged particles. In a conductor, such particles are electrons. The theory of the electrostatic field is based on Coulomb’s law [1, p.17]. «Electric charge and electric field are primary concepts, similar to the concepts of mass and gravitational field in mechanics. This means that they cannot be defined through other, simpler concepts. All we can do is describe their properties»[2, c 1].

Relevance.

With the discovery of the law «Interaction of rotating bodies» (hypothesis) [3] and the creation of the «Tidal Wave Theory» (hypothesis) [4], it became possible to define the concept of the electric field «through other, simpler concepts». More simply, it is possible to imagine an electric charge as a gravitational tidal wave that occurs in a massive body when the center of mass of the body is displaced by the action of electric and magnetic potentials. A tidal wave is a generalized result of the action of gravitational waves. A tidal wave is a mechanical phenomenon, but it has the property of transmitting energy (or receiving it) over a distance by means of gravitational waves, which is the equivalent of an electric current.

Goals and objectives.

The purpose of this paper is to prove the gravitational nature of electricity and magnetism. Task is to create a unified theory of induction, uniting electrical, magnetic and gravitational fields, in which the main role is in education field assigned gravity induction, as the root cause of other fields, electric and magnetic.

Scientific novelty.

All the energy in Our universe comes from the physical vacuum-the relict microwave radiation of the universe. The microwave relic radiation of Our universe is a part of such radiation of the entire cosmos. The energy carrier in space is photons, high-density particles that rotate at a speed that determines the speed of light. A photon is a complex particle consisting, according to the author, of two toroidal vortices in a strong gravitational interaction. The rotation of a photon at the speed of light is a precessional rotation that causes a weak interaction with neighboring photons. The result of this interaction is the appearance of gravitational waves on the surface of the photons. Gravitational waves move along the surface of photons in concentric circles from the point of gravitational contact with neighboring photons. Such a movement can be represented as a movement in orthogonal directions, where one of the axes represents the axis of electric tension, and the other axis represents the axis of magnetic tension, and both of them are orthogonal with the direction of gravitational tension coinciding with the direction of movement of the unified field (the Umov-Poynting vector). The mathematical model of the «tidal wave» proposed by the author allows us to analyze the interference pattern of the superposition of gravitational waves. This model was tested on the analysis of the interaction of the Sun and the Earth and allowed us to identify the precessional motion of the Earth in the gravitational field of the Sun, confirmed by the temperature graphs of the ice cores of Greenland and Antarctica. There is no reason to believe that this model applies not only to the macro-world, but also to the micro-world.

Figure (1) shows the scheme of electromagnetic energy transfer between photons (f1) and (f2). The radial component of the tidal wave motion (e) is transmitted by the electric component of the unified field, and the tangential component (b) is transmitted by the magnetic component of the unified field. You can select the leading (ВМ пв) and driven (ВM pv) tidal waves. The leading tidal wave transfers energy using gravitational waves to the driven wave. In accordance with the law «Interaction of rotating bodies», the photon (f1) repels from (f2) and drags it along, so the gravitational components (g) are directed towards the movement of the photon with a higher rotation speed. Photons do not leave their orbits, which are established relative to the physical vacuum, but only experience fluctuations within these orbits.

фотон

 

Fig. 1 Diagram of the transmission of electromagnetic energy between photons.

Fig. (2) shows a diagram of the transfer of electrical energy in a conductor from one atom (A 1) to another (A 2) by means of tidal waves arising in electrons. Tidal waves-standing waves, but not stationary. According to the «tidal wave» theory, tidal waves arise on all rotating bodies and move along the surfaces of rotating bodies with velocities proportional to the linear velocities of the surfaces of rotating bodies. At the same time, the total energy (ВЩ пв) decreases, and the total energy (ВM пв) increases. In the case of energy transfer, the equation (E=Δ m*Δ V2) is valid, although in reality no mass transfer (Δ m) occurs. Only the electron masses (the tidal wave masses of the (ВЩ пв) and (ВМ пв) are displaced by the electric and magnetic strengths in the direction according to the left-hand rule. Decreases speed (ВЩ пв) (Δ V=V*1 — V1) and increase speed on the (ВМ пв) (∆ V=V2* V2). The position of tidal waves on the surface of electrons is determined by the strength of the electric and magnetic fields.
When the direction of the applied voltage changes, the leading tidal wave changes and (ВЩ пв) becomes (ВMпв) and the energy transfer goes in the opposite direction.

In conductors, the electrons do not leave their places in the crystal lattice of the conductors, but only the displacement of their centers of mass occurs.

электрон

 

Fig.2. Transfer of electrical energy between atoms by means of tidal waves of electrons.

The author has never been able to find a detailed explanation of the physical basis of the electrophoretic machine, everywhere there was only one reference to «electrostatic induction». Considering (Fig. 2), it becomes clear that further details of the phenomenon did not exist. The author of the article puts forward an explanation of the physical phenomenon: when the petals of the electrophoretic machine move in opposite directions, the gravitational interaction of the electrons in both lobes occurs and they receive a mass displacement in the direction in accordance with the ratio of the linear velocities of the electrons relative to the physical vacuum, which is an electric current (Fig.3). Previously, when analyzing the operation of the electrophoretic machine, the influence of the Earth’s magnetic field was not taken into account in the calculations, but it is and undoubtedly affects the operation of the machine. Even the instructions said that the polarity of the charges is random, but from the picture it is clear that the polarity occurs strictly according to the rule of the left hand and is not random. The magnetic field on the Earth’s surface is mainly horizontal, and when starting an electrophoretic machine, this must be taken into account, placing the machine along the magnetic meridian.

Эл.машина

Fig.3. The electrophoretic machine and diagrams of the strengths of the components of a single field at the points of connection of the load (e)-the electric field, (b)-the magnetic field, (g) — the gravitational field.

Each petal gives the resulting charge to its pole. The external jumper is used to remove the charges on the load. If the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field remains unchanged, the creation of an oncoming motion of the conductors causes a shift of the electron masses in one direction, which is perceived as an electric current. This phenomenon confirms the gravitational nature of electricity and magnetism.

Electrons leave their places in the crystal lattice only during electron emission, when under the action of a tidal wave amplified as a result of heating, they are repelled from the nucleus of an atom.

Conclusion, conclusions.

Electricity and magnetism have a gravitational nature, because they are manifested by the displacement of the masses of rotating massive bodies (photons and electrons). Mass displacement occurs for various reasons: rubbing of an ebonite stick, electrophoretic machines, chemical voltage sources, voltage generators, etc., but the transfer of mass displacement occurs by gravitational waves, both in physical vacuum and in conductors, while the free movement of electrons in the conductors does not occur and they do not leave their places in the structures of atoms.

Bibliographic list:

1. Tamm E. I. Fundamentals of the theory of electricity. The eleventh edition, corrected and supplemented. M. Fizmatlit, Moscow, 2003, 616 p.
2. Butikov E. I., Kondratiev A. S., Physics: Textbook. Manual, Book 2, Electrodynamics, Optics, — M.: Fizmatizdat, 2004. — 336 p.;
3. Nechaev A.V., Interaction of rotating bodies, SCI-ARTICLE.RU No. 53 (July) 2020 [Electronic resource ], URL access mode:http://sci-article.ru/stat.php?i=1601963571, (Accessed 27.01.2021);
4. Nechaev A.V., Theory of the tidal wave.[Electronic resource ], Access mode URL: http://vprikusku.com/?page_id=1173, (Accessed 27.01.2021);

Reasoning about the structure of a black hole (hypothesis)

Introduction.

Stephen Hawking on black holes: «They say that facts are sometimes more bizarre than fiction, and nowhere is this more justified than in black holes. Black holes are more unusual than all the fictions of science fiction writers, and their existence is a proven fact. » [1, p. 127]

Currently, a lot of information about black holes has accumulated [2], which is often mystical in nature and is very far from a scientific view of these objects.

Relevance.

Currently, there is no idea about the structure of a black hole from a scientific point of view, and the article attempts to present a structure based on the law «Interaction of rotating bodies» proposed by the author [3]. The analysis of the currently available information on black holes is carried out on the basis of the «tidal wave theory» proposed by the author [4].

Goals and objectives.

The purpose of the article is to present the structure of the galaxy’s black hole as a body of rotation with its own features due to the size of the object. The task is to imagine the further development of the black hole of the galaxy to the black hole of the universe and to identify the features of such a transformation. Certain elements of the black hole structure have already been identified and described in the scientific literature, and some elements of the structure have not yet been identified and the author has tried to present them on the basis of new scientific knowledge.

Scientific novelty.

The structure of the black hole is shown in the drawing (Fig. 1)

Структура черной дыры

Fig. 1. The structure of a black hole.

1. Accretion disk;
2. The rotor;
3. The event horizon of the past;
4. The event horizon of the future;
5. Gas storm clouds;
6. The photosphere;
7. High-energy radiation
9. High pressure and temperature zone;
10. Radiation emissions.

The structure of the galaxy’s black hole is a gravitational engine consisting of a stator — an accretion disk (1), representing a toroidal formation in the middle part of the bridge, and a rotor (2), representing a body rotating at a speed of billions of revolutions per second. The matter of the bridge to the middle part of it is compacted and cannot, due to the throttle effect and high density, pass further towards the rotor. The rotor pulls out pieces of matter from the accretion disk by tidal forces, while experiencing shock loads that lead to the appearance of a precessional rotation of the rotor. Between the rotor and the stator is the event horizon of the past (3), after which it becomes impossible to return matter. On the event horizon of the past, the nuclei of chemical elements disintegrate into alpha particles, gamma radiation, among which there are also free hadrons and beta radiation. Alpha particles, as the heaviest, are drawn into the rotor, where they further decay into tritium and deuterium nuclei and further into protons and neutrons. Gamma rays and free hadrons represent radiation emissions that are repelled from the gravitational field of the black hole and go away from the event horizon of the past. Beta radiation, due to the high density of the environment, occurs in the range close to the relic microwave radiation (Cel), so they are observed in the radio range. The fact that these radiations are observed indicates that beta radiations partially extend beyond the event horizon of the past, but the bulk of them goes into the black hole. The event horizon of the past is located in the equatorial part of the black hole, where tidal forces are strongly influenced, depending on the radius of the black hole and the speed of its rotation and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance. The accelerations (a2) near the black hole are determined by the tidal accelerations, which are calculated by the formula (1)
a2=G1* M1* R1* ω1/R^3 (1)
where:
G1 is the gravitational constant at the first derivative;
M1-the mass of the black hole;
R1-the radius of the black hole;
ω1 -angular velocity of rotation of the black hole rotor;
R is the distance to the black hole.
These accelerations are maximal in the region of the equator of the black hole, where ( R1) reaches the highest values, so the accretion disk is formed exactly in the plane of the equator.
From the distance of the jumper radius, the tidal forces exceed the forces of mutual attraction and towards the event horizon begin to be crucial. This allows the tidal forces to tear the substance into the smallest pieces and particles. A black hole exists as long as there is matter to feed its energy of rotation, since its rotation is carried out due to the reaction of the decay of matter on the event horizon of the past. The event horizon of the past is hidden from the observer and can only be seen by special microwave radiation receivers.

In the polar part of the black hole is the event horizon of the future (4). It faces the outside observer, but cannot be seen for two reasons; the event horizon of the past is covered by gas storm clouds (5), the temperature of the event horizon of the future is very low and close to absolute zero. Between the event horizon of the future and the gas storm clouds is the photosphere (6), where particles of beta radiation flow from the event horizon of the past. We can only assume that they are pulled there by the magnetic field of the black hole, since beta radiation depends on the action of the magnetic field.

The low temperature of the future event horizon is due to the fact that high-energy radiation is released in the polar part (7). They represent the nuclei of heavy elements synthesized in a black hole. During the synthesis, the volume of the nuclei increases and the process is accompanied by energy consumption. A further decrease in temperature occurs when particles join the nuclei in the photosphere. Heavy element atoms can leave the event horizon of the future only after warming up, which happens after a lightning strike from gas storm clouds. Heating the atoms increases the fluidity of the electrons and they are better excited by the tidal wave, which pushes the atoms away from the gravitational field of the black hole. This phenomenon is widespread in the universe and is found even on Earth. The weakly radioactive heavy element radon-222 coming out of the Earth after the decay of radium, after a lightning strike, acquires energy that carries its invisible matter up to the ionosphere, where it decays and becomes visible by the ionization of inert gases in the form of «sprites», «jets», «elves». This phenomenon also explains the high temperature of the Sun’s corona. Invisible radiation from the Sun escapes from the surface and decays into the corona with a large release of heat. At the same time, a darkening of the Sun’s surface is observed at the exit point of the radiation, which indicates a decrease in the temperature at the exit point. On the surface of the Sun, there is no need to heat the radiation, since the surface has a fairly high temperature (about 6000 Deg. With)

In the center of the black hole’s rotor, a zone of extreme parameters of pressure, temperature, and rotation speed (9) is created, which creates conditions for the formation of waves of tiny vortices from decayed matter. The basis of this zone is formed in supernovae and after their decay is a neutron star, characterized by high density and high rotation speed. Creating an accretion disk around itself from the matter surrounding it, the neutron star turns into a black hole. So far, there are no cases of black hole decay, but galaxy absorption and black hole mergers have been observed many times. It is assumed that black holes can take on arbitrarily large sizes, which are limited only by the ability to receive matter to convert it into rotational energy in order to keep matter inside them in a compressed form. When it reaches a size that makes it impossible to get the necessary amount of matter, the black hole explodes and all its contents are thrown into outer space. Most of the mass and energy of the black hole is concentrated in the rotor and the energy of the explosion is formed in it.

разрез

Fig. 2. Longitudinal section of the black hole rotor.

2. The rotor;
9. High pressure and temperature zone;
11. Pulse channel;
12. Formation of low-density hadrons;
13. The formation of hadrons to high-density;
14. Synthesis of low-density element nuclei;
15. Synthesis of high-density element nuclei;

In the rotor of a black hole (Fig.2), matter decays and the densest of the particles gather to the center of rotation of the rotor, where the greatest pressure is created. Under the influence of this pressure, matter breaks through the pulse channels (11) in the direction of lower pressure, which is located in the polar part of the black hole. Through these channels, matter moves towards the event horizon of the future. The channels are opened by high pressure and at the moment of opening, the formation of toroidal vortices, which are hadrons, occurs. When the pressure drops, the channel closes. Different radius of rotation of the pulse channel relative to the center of rotation of the rotor corresponds to a different density of particles from which the formation of hadrons occurs, and therefore a different density of chemical elements that will be formed from them. As an example, the formation of low-density hadrons (12) and high-density hadrons (13) Toroidal vortices have the property of entering into a strong interaction in pairs, in which the directions of rotation of the vortices have different directions. After entering the strong interaction, the pair of nucleons rotates together, having a precessional motion, which is the basis of the weak interaction with other pairs of nucleons. In accordance with their speed capabilities, the pairs of nucleons make up the helix of the nucleus of a chemical element. The fastest pairs are placed at the head of the spiral, and the rest follow them as the speed of rotation decreases. Such a spiral has the ability to replenish energy and then it is compressed (15) or to expend energy and then the spiral is decompressed (14).
As a result of the rotation of the black hole’s rotor at a speed exceeding the speed of light, the nuclei of matter trapped in the black hole disintegrate. Each decay element has a density greater than that of the element before the decay. The densest element of the decay is the particles from the decay of hadrons, which are grouped in the center of the rotor (Fig. 3). It is assumed that after the Big Bang of the proto-universe, these particles form photons of relic radiation, representing pairs of toroidal vortices united by a strong interaction. In addition, a large number of photons fall into black holes as beta studies and gravitational waves, which do not need to be reformatted, but only replenish their energy.

разрез

Fig. 3. Cross section of the black hole rotor.

The decay of matter in a black hole occurs at high pressure and temperature, so the speed of light is less than in a vacuum and corresponds to the microwave range of radio frequencies (Cf.). After the Big Bang, the appearance of light occurs under similar conditions, and it should be expected that the speed of light has the same value (Cf.) This fact is confirmed by the fact that the most intense radiation of black holes occurs in the microwave radio range — the range of relic radiation (Fig.4.), which means that the range of relic radiation stores information about all events in the universe and the cosmos. «White noise» is information about the state of the entire cosmos, modulated by an infinite number of black holes.

преобр. https://i.ibb.co/g7JWTg1/5.png

Fig. 4 Graph of energy transformations in a black hole.

Conclusion.

The structure of a galaxy’s black hole is a body of rotation whose density increases towards the center. The central region of the black hole is occupied by neutrons and their decay products. This part was inherited by the galaxy’s black hole from supernovae. When the galaxies merge, the black holes pass it on, but greatly enlarged, to the black hole of the universe. When a black hole in the universe reaches a size that the black hole cannot provide the necessary energy for rotation, a Big Bang occurs with the ejection of all the contents of the black hole into the area that the universe occupied before collapsing.

In the vastness of space, there are an infinite number of universes united by a common relict microwave radiation (Fig. 5), the energy of which is the engine of the entire process of transformation of matter. An increase in the temperature of the relic microwave radiation (redshift) may indicate an increase in the energy of the physical vacuum. Since the Big Bang, our universe has been giving energy and mass to the surrounding space in the form of gravitational waves. Other active universes do the same (#1, # 2). As a result, antinodes of mass and energy are formed, which by mutual attraction collapse into new black holes of the scale of the universes and prepare new Big Explosions. This model of outer space explains the observed accelerated expansion of Our universe towards the black holes of future universes and the matter of existing universes.

напр.3

Fig.5 The position of white and black holes in outer space. At a certain point in development, the universes begin to expand with acceleration towards the forming black hole of the new universe.

At present, the concept of «white holes» has appeared[5]. This puts emphasis on the structure of the cosmos. Black holes gravitational waves are absorbed and exploded by a white hole that emits gravitational waves. The author suggests that both of these phenomena can occur simultaneously during the explosion of supernovae. Any star has a core inside it that rotates faster than the outer shell, since the radius of the inner core is constantly decreasing with a constant moment of rotation. Inside supernovae, there are supposedly black holes that feed on the energy of the stars ‘ internal matter. If it is impossible to replenish the energy to rotate and retain the acquired mass, the black hole inside the supernova sheds the excess mass and continues to live as a neutron star. The ejected mass is converted into the energy of a supernova explosion. Over time, the neutron star begins to collect an accretion disk, turning into a black hole of the galaxy.

Bibliographic list:

1. Hawking S., Short answers to big questions, translated from English by S. Bavin, Moscow: Eksmo. 2019. — 256 p.
2. Hawking S., Black holes and young universes,[Electronic resource], URL access mode:https://online-knigi.com.ua/page/12073 (Accessed 21.01.2021)
3. Nechaev A.V. Interaction of rotating bodies, SCI-ARTICLE.RU No. 53 (July) 2020 [Electronic resource], URL access mode:http://sci-article.ru/stat.php?i=1601963571, (Accessed 17.01.2021)
4. Nechaev A.V., Theory of the tidal wave, [Electronic resource], Access mode URL: http://vprikusku.com/prilivnaya-volna/teoriya-prilivnoj-volny.html (accessed 19.01.2021)
5. White holes in space-what is it?[Electronic resource], Access mode URL: http://astronovosti.ru/belye-dyry-v-kosmose-chto-eto/(Accessed 28.01.2021 G.)

Interaction of the physical vacuum with baryonic matter and radiation emissions (hypothesis)

Introduction.

The interaction of the physical vacuum with baryonic matter and radiation is considered on the basis of the proposed law «Interaction of rotating bodies», published in the journal SCI-ARTICLE No. 83 for 2020 [4]. At the same time, additional accelerations (wd1 , wd2) arising near massive bodies, calculated by the formula (4) for simplification are not considered due to their smallness.

The total acceleration of the body (2) in the gravitational field of the central body (1)
a Σ2= a2 + w2 (1)
a2 is the acceleration of the mutual attraction of the second body;
w2 — tidal acceleration;

a Σ 2 =G*M1/R^2 + 2G1*M1* R1*ω1*sin(ω1*t+φ1)/R^3 +2G1*M1*R2*ω2*sin(ω2*t+φ2 )/R^3         (2)

G is the gravitational constant;
G1 is the gravitational constant at the first derivative;
M1, M2 — masses of bodies;
R is the distance between the bodies;
R1 and R2 are the radii of the bodies;
ω1 , ω2 is the angular speed of rotation of bodies;
φ1 , φ2 — initial angles of rotation of bodies;
t — time;

Expression (2) consists of three main terms:
a Σ2 = a 2 + w12 — w22

a 2 =G*M1/R^2-acceleration resulting from the law of universal attraction of I. Newton.

w 12 = 2G1*M1* R1*ω1*sin(ω1*t+ φ1)/R^3 — tidal acceleration of the first body;

— such acceleration is described by the Lenze-Tiering effect, as the entrainment of inertial reference frames by a rotating body.

w 22 = -2G1*M1* R2*ω2*sin(ω2*t+φ2 )/R^3 — tidal acceleration of the second body;

-additional acceleration, assumed by academician A. D. Sakharov, as the effect on the acceleration of the second body only he didn’t realize that the second body was affected by its rotation.
The interaction is considered on the example of the arms of the Centauri Shield and Perseus of the Milky Way galaxy .The physical vacuum is understood as a medium of photons of relic microwave radiation.

Goals and objectives.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interaction of baryonic matter with radiation emissions in a physical vacuum environment. The task is to develop a criterion by which it is possible to determine what is currently contained in the concept of «black energy» and «black matter».

Scientific novelty.

According to the author, the linear velocity of a rotating photon determines the speed of light. The structure of the photon, according to the author, is well presented in the article [6] with comments from 28.03.2018.. that is, it is a pair of toroidal vortices united by a strong gravitational interaction. The speed of light is determined by the precessional motion of a pair of toroidal vortices. The proper rotation speed of toroidal vortices is much higher. In the denser environment of the early universe, the speed of light was less important than it is now, which is reflected in the fact that we observe relic light radiation in the microwave range of radio waves. Similarly, it is best to observe the light emission of black holes in the radio range. The speed of light increases over time, and the light emitted in the past, in a denser environment, has a natural redshift, up to the radio range, for relic radiation. The red shift of distant galaxies may indicate not an accelerated expansion of the universe, but an increase in the density of the galaxy’s matter due to its collapse [5].

Having a high speed of rotation, the photons of the relic microwave radiation have a high energy. They received their energy in the proto-universe black hole, which is similar to the black hole of a galaxy, but had a much larger size due to the merger of the black holes of galaxies. (Figure 1).

вселенная

Fig. 1 The formation of Our universe and our galaxy from the proto-universe black hole. Under the influence of precession (wn), the jet of radiation emissions from the event horizon of the future black hole of the proto-universe occupies a significant amount of space — the expansion zone of baryonic matter.

Let us first consider the interaction options for two homogeneous particles:
a Σ2= a2 + w12 — w22= 0-the particles are in orbit around each other, the rotation speeds are very close in magnitude; the forces of attraction and repulsion are equal.
This variant is typical for a physical vacuum, where photons rotate at the speed of light and, despite accelerations close to those of the collision, oscillate near the equilibrium position. Photons rotating at the speed of light are limited in translational and rotational motion by the law of conservation of energy (E = mc ^ 2 where m is the mass of the photon, c is the speed of light), they cannot exceed this energy, and they cannot rotate slower and have less energy than the physical vacuum. It is assumed that the photon becomes visible only when its rotation speed decreases relative to the photons of the surrounding physical vacuum, which is the source of electromagnetic radiation, and the photon has the possibility of translational motion towards neighboring photons. The mass of the photon is converted into the energy of the electromagnetic field and when it is converted back into mass, it has already received a mass displacement, which is equivalent to movement in the gravitational field under the influence of gravitational waves. Gamma radiation is the first to appear, and other types of electromagnetic radiation appear with a further decrease in the speed of rotation. This phenomenon can continue for a very short period of time until the physical vacuum restores the rotation speed of an individual photon, while the speed of neighboring photons decreases, which also become radiation sources, but of a different frequency. The source of the translational motion of the photon, as well as the result of its action on neighboring photons, is the displacement of the center of mass of the photon, which is gravitational in nature and is transmitted from photon to photon in the form of gravitational waves.

a Σ2= a2 + w12 — w22 > 0-the particles attract each other, the difference in the speeds of rotation of the particles is insignificant and the speeds do not exceed the speed of light. The forces of attraction exceed the forces of repulsion. In relative motion, there is a convergence of telephone
This variant is typical for baryonic matter, which collapses matter from the surrounding space.

a Σ2= a2 + w12 — w22 < 0-the particles repel each other, have a significant difference in the speed of rotation, and the speed of rotation exceeds the speed of light. The faster particle (2) is repelled by the lower-speed particle (1), which rushes after the particle (2) and begins to catch up with it when their linear velocities are equalized. In relative motion, in the short term, there is a removal of bodies. In the long run, the bodies will still attract, since the acceleration of universal attraction does not depend on the speed of rotation of the body, and tidal accelerations depend on and decrease with time.
This variant is typical for radiation emissions, the particles of which repel each other and tend to occupy the entire space.

Heterogeneous forms of matter; baryonic and radiative radiation interact through a physical vacuum, but the criterion of interaction remains the same-the linear speed of rotation of the surface of bodies or the outer layer of the vortex of particles on which tidal waves arise under the influence of gravitational waves.

Baryonic matter is based on its origin of hydrogen atoms, which are formed when hadrons of photons of relic microwave radiation, which have oscillations in the form of gravitational waves, are added to the radiation radiation [2].
Radiation hadrons are toroidal vortices [1] that rotate at superluminal speed, so they are repelled by photons, but photons are attracted by hadrons and are joined by them under the influence of gravitational waves. As a result of the addition of photons, a zone of reduced pressure is formed, where the matter that has become baryonic rushes. The photon, which has no freedom of movement in the physical vacuum, has only one way to meet the hadron-to join it. When attached, the direction of rotation of the attached vortex is important; either the direction of its rotation coincides with the direction of the upper layer of the hadron vortex and then there is a weak interaction with the formation of an electron and hydrogen is formed, or the direction of rotation is opposite and then there is a strong interaction and a neutron is formed. The source [2] describes a method for the formation of hydrogen from a neutron and «by a roundabout way.»
A proton and a neutron can combine in a strong interaction and then the proton vortex becomes common to a pair of nucleons and its rotation occurs in the direction of the neutron vortex, so when a pair of nucleons decays, the electron vortex remains behind the neutron, with which it is bound by a strong interaction.

Baryonic matter, which has bound electrons in its composition, can have a linear rotation speed only lower than light, otherwise it will lose electrons. This phenomenon of the decay of matter when exceeding the speed of light is observed on the event horizon of the past of black holes. The decay occurs with the formation of a large number of alpha radiation (α) following the black hole and radiation radiation following the exit from the galaxy in the accelerating gravitational field of the black hole (Fig. 2). More experiments by A. Becquerel showed that as a result of the decay of matter, it is divided into alpha radiation, which is weakly repelled by the Earth’s gravity, gamma radiation (radiation radiation), which is intensively repelled by the Earth’s gravity, and beta radiation, which does not have pronounced gravitational restrictions. The intermediate stages of the decay of matter in the black hole of the proto-universe are: α (alpha particles), t (tritium nuclei) , d (deuterium nuclei), p (protons), n (neutrons) — currently widely represented in the universe. All these decay elements are radiation emissions, behave according to their special properties, and affect the properties of the physical vacuum. It is difficult to predict this behavior, but it can be assumed, for example, that the nuclei of helium atoms absorb photons of the physical vacuum and thereby contract into homogeneous formations of helium, which may represent baryonic matter. This explains the widespread presence of helium in the universe at a size larger than it would be if it were synthesized from hydrogen.
The proton differs from the neutron by the presence of a»shell» in the latter. In the black hole, neutrons fall in the composition of alpha particles together with the» shell», which separates from the neutron and accumulates during the merger of black holes, which serves as the basis for the formation of photons of relic microwave radiation after the Big Bang of the proto-universe black hole.

The source of radiation radiation is also the decay of heavy elements emitted in the form of jets from the event horizon of future black holes. This type of radiation is the product of the expansion of baryonic matter into the surrounding space, like the B. Mandelbrot set. Two jett rays are emitted from one galaxy’s black hole, leading to the formation of at least two new galaxies.

The interaction of the physical vacuum with baryonic matter consists in the reflection (repulsion) of gravitational waves of photons of the relic microwave radiation and in the formation of new gravitational waves around physical bodies. In this case, the baryonic matter is carried away by the physical vacuum in the direction of the propagation of gravitational waves. If there is another physical body in one of the directions of propagation of gravitational waves, photons are displaced from the baseline connecting these bodies, which lowers the pressure and causes the mutual attraction of the bodies.
If one of the directions of propagation of gravitational waves of radiation, the absorption of hadrons of radiation of photons relic of microwave energy on gravitational waves do not pass, but the pressure of the physical vacuum is reduced and baryonic matter is perceived as an attraction to the radiation emissions. It is difficult to judge the strength of this attraction, but given that the rotation speed of hadrons of radiation radiation is much higher than the rotation speed of electrons in baryonic matter, it is possible that the forces of attraction to radiation radiation exceed the forces of mutual attraction to baryonic matter.

 

The absorption of photons of relic radiation by radiation radiation is the shielding effect of radiation radiation on gravitational waves. Baryonic matter-of-arms of the galaxy is attracted to the black hole of a galaxy only through matter jumpers and matter sleeves along the chain. Using radiation baryonic matter to be attracted can’t because radiation absorb photons of the CMB, weakening gravitational waves , but the particles of radiation are attracted to each other due to the absorption of photons . This phenomenon is the reason for the constancy of the speed of the stars outside the jumper. Radiation radiation pulls together the arms of galaxies, but can not attract them to the black hole, as they themselves repel it. There is a counter movement of baryonic matter and radiation radiation.

Наша галактика.

 

Fig.2 Interaction of baryonic matter and radiation emissions in the Milky Way galaxy. The white color shows the movement of baryonic matter.The black color shows the movement of radiation (γ). The sign (f) shows the addition of a photon by radiation and the formation of hydrogen (H). The asterisk indicates the beginning of star formation.

A significant part of the energy released during nuclear decay at the event horizon of the black hole’s past goes to spin the black hole’s rotor (Fig. 3). The injection of matter for decay is carried out in the regions adjacent to the bridge, the output of the decay products (α-particles) goes in the direction of the black hole rotor, where they are compacted by the tidal forces of the entire accretion disk and in the direction of the exit from the galaxy, where the radiation radiation (γ) is accelerated by the gravitational forces of the black hole. Alpha particles (α) they are the nucleus of helium atoms, where the nucleon pairs are united in the nucleus by a weak interaction, and there is a strong interaction between the neutrons and protons of the nucleon pairs. With increasing pressure and temperature, the nucleon pairs are mutually unwound with decreasing distance and thus store energy that will be released during mutual deceleration with increasing distance. This phenomenon is the main source of the expansion of the universe after the Big Bang. When black holes merge, the masses are combined to the mass of the proto-universe black hole, when it becomes impossible to further increase the mass due to the lack of necessary matter. This is the cause of the Big Bang. In the Big Bang, the entire contents of the proto-universe’s black hole are ejected into space.
In the black hole of the proto-universe, presumably, there were not only alpha particles, but also the products of their decay into smaller homogeneous vortices, from which photons then originated. The same vortices formed toroidal vortices of hadrons, which synthesized the nuclei of superheavy elements, which were radiated from the event horizon of the future black hole of the proto-universe. In the black hole of the proto-universe, hadrons were reformatted to a higher energy level due to an increase in the rotation speed during compression with an increased temperature.

The accretion disk can be considered a stator, and then it, together with the black hole’s rotor, can form an engine, which, according to the type of energy source, can be attributed to photons.

ротор

 

Fig. 3 The photon engine on the example of the Sagittarius-A black hole. The white arrows show the movement of baryonic matter towards the event horizon of the past (indicated by an orange circle). The black arrows show the movement of radiation emissions (γ) to the exit from the galaxy. A red flag with a blue circle in the center indicates the zones of nuclear decay of matter on the event horizon of the past.

The rotation speed (ω) of the galaxy’s black hole can be calculated if we take into account that we know the distance from which the tidal forces begin to prevail (Fig.4). From the tip of the bridge, the nature of the movement of matter changes, the movement takes on an avalanche character. This suggests that a tidal force has been added to the gravitational force, which depends inversely on the cube of the distance.

 

всел.

 

Fig. 4 Basic dimensions of the Sagittarius-A black hole.

This distance is approximately equal to the radius of the galaxy’s spiral jumper, which is Rр = 10,000 sv. years * 9.46 10 ^ 12 km. = 9.46 10^16 km.
From astronomical observations of scientists, it is known that the radius of the galaxy’s black hole is Rb = 11 10 ^ 6 km.
Let’s take G1= 0.1 G-which corresponds to an ordinary dense cosmic body or a planet like Mercury.
The gravitational accelerations and the tidal acceleration will be equal to:
G * M/R p ^2= 0.1 G* M * R b * ω/R p ^ 3;
where: M is the mass of the black hole.
R p = 0.1 R b * ω ;
ω = Rp / 0.1 Rb = 9,46 10^16 /0,1 * 11 10^6 = 8,6 10^10 volume/ sec. = 86 billion per/ second.
This speed of rotation allows black holes to tear matter into atoms and particles.
According to press reports, modern researchers from Purdue University managed to achieve a rotation speed of a particle of matter in 500 billion revolutions per second.

Conclusions.
As a result of the analysis, it is concluded that the term «dark» can be attributed to particles and matter rotating at light and superluminal speeds, since they cannot be seen with the naked eye. The energy of all transformations in the universe and in the galaxy is due to the energy of the physical vacuum, which can be called «dark energy». «dark matter» can be called radiation radiation, both hadrons from the event horizon of the past of black holes, and heavy element atoms from the event horizon of the future of black holes, which emit hadrons as a result of their decay. «Dark matter» also includes alpha particles and their decay products up to and including hadrons, as well as radiation from the proto-universe black hole at the Big Bang. A strong argument in favor of the fact that it is radiation that is «dark matter» is the experiments of A. Becquerel, who showed that radiation does not react to an electric field.

Bibliographic list:

1. Atsyukovsky V. A. Popular efirodynamics or how the world in which we live is arranged. Moscow: Publishing House «Scientific World», 2015. Pages 375, Table 2, fig. 120, photos 37, fig. 32.
2. Petrov, The principle of hydrogen formation, [Electronic resource], Access mode URL: petrovvf.livejournal.com/4919 html 2011.11.08;
3. Petrov, Photon. The structure of the photon. The principle of movement. [Electronic resource] Access mode URL: https://petrovvf.livejournal.com/#asset-petrovvf-10505
4. Nechaev A.V. Interaction of rotating bodies, SCI-ARTICLE.RU No. 53 (July) 2020 [Electronic resource ], URL access mode:http://sci-article.ru/stat.php?i=1601963571, (Accessed 27.09.2020);
5. Candidate of Technical Sciences G. S. Lomakin, The nature of redshift. Version 2. [Electronic resource] Access mode: Yandex Zen https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5ea6c80450c3275eb74e2f4d/chast-28-priroda-krasnogo-smesceniia-versiia-1-5f7e829e15099c198adc0656 (Accessed 03.12.2020)
6. Kononchenko S. A. Structure of elementary particles (hypothesis), https://sci-article.ru/stat.php?i=1521544132. Article published in No. 56 (April) 2018

Interaction of rotating bodies (hypothesis).

Introduction
The interaction of rotating bodies is carried out by means of tidal waves, which are gravitational waves and the existence of which has recently been proved by science (February 11, 2016). The medium in which the interaction is carried out is a physical vacuum (density of 400-500 photons per cm^3; T = 2,725 K; F = 160 Ghz.)

Relevance
In modern science, four types of interaction are considered: strong, weak, gravitational and electromagnetic. In this case, the gravitational interaction is considered in the form in which it was formulated by I. Newton; that is, in the static state of non-rotating bodies.

In the absence of rotation of the two bodies [FIG.1] relative to each other, their interaction is determined by mutual attraction with a force in accordance with the Law of Universal Gravitation, while there are tidal accelerations that are not taken into account by the law of Universal attraction. Tidal accelerations occur due to the difference in the accelerations of points of bodies at different distances from the source of gravity.

 

δw zi = a zi — a si (for the zenith point) [1]
δw ni = a ni — a ci (for the nadir point)
where: a ci is the acceleration of the center of the body;
and zi , and ni are the accelerations of points of the body that are at different distances from the center .

| δw zi | > | δw ni | — therefore, bodies have an additional attraction (during attraction or entrainment), in A. Einstein’s GR, it is known as an additional curvature of space by a massive body. It is quite clear that space is bent by both massive bodies. Under repulsion, the inequality changes | δw zi | < / δw ni | .

Assume that the body (1) is located under the force of gravity of the body (2). A tidal wave on the illuminated side dominates the tidal wave on the shady side, the center of mass is shifted toward the source of gravity.
Suppose now that body (1) repels body (2). This becomes possible if an external force acts on the body (1) and the body (1) repels the body (2 )with its gravitational field. The tidal wave on the shadow side of the body (2) prevails over the tidal wave on the illuminated side, the center of inertia is shifted away from the source of the repulsive force.

Goals, objectives, materials and methods.
Such non-rotating bodies do not exist in nature. All bodies rotate and interact with each other by gravitational waves, which are a manifestation of gravitational induction. The purpose of this article is to develop common features for the interaction of rotating bodies in order to create a general law of gravitational induction.

For clarity, we consider the interaction of two bodies (1) and (2) [FIG. 2], like the Earth having a hydrosphere.

A rotating body creates a tidal wave in the surrounding bodies and in itself induces tidal waves from the surrounding bodies. A tidal wave creates a force whose magnitude depends on the speed of rotation of the body, and the direction depends on the ratio of the velocities of the interacting bodies. The body (1) is in the gravitational field of the body (2). Tidal waves occur on the body on the illuminated side (3) and on the shadow side (5). Body (1) having a lower speed of rotation and the predominance of the forces involved, a tidal wave on the illuminated side is superior to the magnitude of the tidal wave on the shady side, but for the body (2) which has the greater speed and the dominance of repulsive forces, tidal wave on the shady side of (6) exceeds a tidal wave on the illuminated side (4). This occurs due to the displacement of the center of inertia O1 and O2 in O1 and O11 position 2, which determines the direction of movement of solids when rotated in the direction of the body with greater speed.

When the rotation of the body (1) with the lower speed (for greater clarity, the body (1) is shown without rotation) what is the velocity of the body (2) there is a phenomenon of twisting, reflected in the increase of the velocity of the body (1) due to the fact that tidal wave induced on it by the body (2), drags the body (1). Friction force — Fтр1 increases the speed of rotation of the body (1) using projection -Fc and the projection of the friction force Fпв1 — the power of the tidal wave attracting body (1) body (2). This force is applied, regardless of the force of mutual attraction.
When the rotation of the body (2) at a speed greater than the speed of the body (1) the phenomenon of inhibition, reflected in the reduction of the velocity of the body (2) due to the fact that tidal wave induced on it by the body (1) brakes body (2) and pushes the body (2) body (1) force Fпв2 . This force is applied, regardless of the force of mutual attraction.

The interaction of bodies occurs with a physical vacuum, so there is really no interaction of two bodies. In real life, there is an interaction of an infinite number of bodies through a physical vacuum. We can only conditionally consider the interaction of two bodies, abstracting from an infinite number of other bodies. As the angular momentum of the body (1) increases, the angular momentum of the body (2) decreases, which is associated with it by interaction through gravitational waves. When the speed of the body (2) is higher than the speed of the body (1), the speed of the body (2) decreases, and the speed of the body (1) increases, while the body (1) is attracted to the body (2), and the body (2) is repelled from the body (1). As a result, the bodies form a spiral motion, well known in astronomy and now observed on the example of the binary system PSRJ 1141-6545. The law of conservation of momentum is not violated, but there is only a redistribution of the angular momentum between the bodies (1) and (2) during their interaction.

The centers of inertia of the bodies are located at points (O11) and (O21), being constantly displaced relative to their geometric centers (O1) and (O2 ) due to the inequality of tidal waves on the midday and midnight sides, and as a result of rotation they are shifted to points ( O1 11) and (O211 1). If a body is attracted by another body, the center of inertia shifts towards the midday line [body (1) If the body is repelled from the other body, the center of mass is shifted towards the midnight line /body (2), and although tidal wave on the midnight side in this case will be greater the friction force on the midnight side is less than the midday due to the fact that the flow of tidal waves on the midnight side sent in accordance with the direction of rotation of the body, and to the South, are directed oppositely. The common center of inertia moves from a point (O1m) to a point (O11m), that is, it rests relative to the position of the bodies. When considering the interaction and relative displacement of two bodies, the interaction of both bodies with a physical vacuum and the movement of their center of mass in a physical vacuum and relative to other bodies, which represents an absolute displacement, remain outside the frame.

In accordance with the law of universal gravitation [1 p. 63], all bodies are mutually attracted by a force that is calculated by the formula

F = G*M1*M2/R^2                             [2]

where:
G is the gravitational constant;
M1,M2 -masses of celestial bodies;
R is the distance between the bodies

Scientific novelty.
According to the author, the interaction of bodies is carried out by gravitational waves. The nature of gravity comes from the interaction of infinitesimal particles of matter, when the only way of interaction is a collision, in which gravitational waves appear, both the transmission of the collision along the chain, and vortices appear due to the need to change the direction of motion of a particle of matter due to the inability to move in the direction of another particle. The simplest vortex is already a rotating body, the freedom of rotation of which is limited by other vortices. The tidal wave reflects the interference pattern of the influence of physical bodies on the parameters of the gravitational waves of other bodies, which is a new gravitational wave.
The acceleration for a body (2) located in the gravitational field of the body (1) can be calculated if both parts of the expression [2] are divided by M2, knowing that F2=a2*M2 ; F2 = G*M1*M2/R^2
a2*M2/M2  =G*M1*M2/R^2*M2
a2 = G*M1/R^2                                      [3]

By its physical nature, tidal acceleration is a derivative of acceleration over distance. Take the derivative of the expression [3] by distance (for clarity, only the first derivative is taken) [2 c. 106]we get:

w2 =d(a2)/d R= -2G1*M1*d(R) /R^3                      [4]
The gravitational constant (G) changes its value and dimension to G1 (m3 / kg. sec.) and its value changes for each pair of interacting bodies and even for each of the bodies. A more differentiated account of the gravitational constant allows us to take into account the influence of other bodies of different composition for each of the considered bodies. It is proposed to call it the gravitational constant at the first derivative.
The resulting acceleration expresses an additional acceleration, described by A. Einstein as an additional curvature of space that occurs near massive bodies, and can be calculated at different values (ΔR), where (ΔR) is the change in the distance between the bodies. Additional (w1d ; w2d ) acceleration is experienced by both interacting bodies.

w1d =-2G1*M2*/ R^3; w2d = -2G1*M1* ΔR/R^3 ;
Similar accelerations can occur when one of the bodies is forced to move in the direction of another body (repulsion or entrainment).

Tidal accelerations depend inversely on the cube of the distance (not on the square), and the interaction of rotating bodies is carried out by the surface masses of the bodies, so the change in the distance between the bodies can be represented as a change in the distance between two rotating masses of tidal waves, whose masses are proportional to the masses of the bodies and with radii of rotation equal to the radii of these bodies. Tidal waves are stationary, but not stationary. The velocities of tidal waves on the surfaces of bodies are proportional to the rotational velocities of the interacting bodies. The equivalent substitution allows us to formulate the formula for the change in the distance (δR) between these bodies as a function of the speed of rotation of the bodies, which will be the difference in the projections of the vectors of the radii of rotation of the bodies on the axis connecting them.

δ(R) = [R1* cos (ω1* t+ φ1) — R2cos(ω2* t+ φ2) ] [5]
where:
ω1, ω2 are the angular velocities of rotation;
φ1, φ2 is the initial rotation angles;
R1 and R2 are the radii of the heavenly bodies;
The expression [5] is a complex function due to the presence of a term of the form [ cos (ω* t+ φ)], which, when differentiated, takes the form [d(cos(ω*t+φ)/dt = — ω*sin ( ω*t + φ)] ;
For ease of understanding, only the first time derivative is taken, but in practice, derivatives of other orders can also be taken and trigonometric series made from them.

d(R)/dt= — R1*ω1* sin (ω1* t+ φ1) + R2*ω2*sin(ω2* t+ φ2) [6]
The derivative of the angular velocity of rotation is taken similarly to the time derivative:
d(R)/dω = -t* R1* sin (ω1* t+ φ1) + t* R2*sin(ω2* t+ φ2) [7]
The formula [4], taking into account the formulas [6],[7], will take the form:

w1 = 2G1*M2*t*[ R2*ω2*sin(ω2* t+ φ2) — R1*ω1* sin (ω1* t+ φ1)] * [R1* sin (ω1* t+ φ1) — R2*sin(ω2* t+ φ2)]/R^3
w2 = 2G1*M1*t*[ R1*ω1* sin (ω1* t+ φ1) — R2*ω2*sin(ω2* t+ φ2)] * [R1* sin (ω1* t+ φ1) — R2*sin(ω2* t+ φ2)]/R^3           [8]

where: G1 (m^2/kg. sec.^2) is the gravitational constant for the first derivative of the acceleration. This constant is characteristic only for a particular pair of bodies and depends on a lot of arguments, which can be discussed in detail in a separate article. If the derivative is taken only in time, the dimension G1 (m^3/kg. sec.)
also changes, the total acceleration (aΣ2) experienced by the rotating body (2) when interacting with the rotating body (1) will be:
aΣ2 = a + w1d + w2d + w2
The total acceleration (aΣ1) experienced by the rotating body (1) when interacting with the rotating body (2) will be:
aΣ1 = a + w1d + w2d + w1

Results, conclusions.

The analysis of the formula [8] shows that the n-order derivative has the form:

w1(n) = (n+1)*Gn*M2*t*[ R1*ω1 n * sin (ω1* t+ φ1) — R2*ω2 n *sin(ω2* t+ φ2)] * [R1* sin (ω1* t+ φ1) — R2*sin(ω2* t+ φ2)]/R 2+ n

w2(n) =(n+1)*Gn*M1*t*[ R1*ω1 n * sin (ω1* t+ φ1) — R2*ω2 n *sin(ω2* t+ φ2)] * [R1* sin (ω1* t+ φ1) — R2*sin(ω2* t+ φ2)]/R 2+ n                  [9]

As the order of the derivative increases and the distance between the interacting bodies (R,) decreases, the value of w (n) tends to infinity, as the numerator increases and the denominator decreases infinitely. This explains the rigidity of the intra-nuclear interactions.

The analysis of the formula [9] shows. when bi-directional rotation of the body, the interaction is similar to the strong nuclear interaction, mutual unwinding of the body and reducing the distance or mutual inhibition bodies with increasing distance. Mutual unwinding means that a body whose speed is greater has a load in the form of a body whose speed is less and the speed difference is a hysteresis, which will change the sign if the other body starts to increase the speed. Similarly, with mutual braking. The author suggests that mutual unwinding with decreasing distance can be observed when matter enters a «black hole,» when matter stores the energy of rotation. The energy source in this case is alpha particles decaying to plasma at the event horizon of the black hole’s past. Mutual deceleration with increasing distance can be observed at the exit of plasma matter from the «black hole», when there is either radiation radiation of superdense elements synthesized from this plasma in the form of jets from the event horizon of the future of the black hole, or explosive expansion of the plasma, as in the Big Bang. The energy carrier after the Big Bang is the photons of microwave radiation.

With unidirectional rotation, an interaction similar to the weak nuclear interaction occurs with the formation of orbits, the average position of which is determined by the law of universal attraction of I. Newton, and the deviation from the average orbit is determined by the action of tidal forces. When the bodies approach, the repulsive forces increase due to an increase in the rotation speed of the body (2), and when moving away, the attractive forces increase due to a decrease in the rotation speed of the body (2).

The strong and weak interactions can pass from one to the other if one of the bodies makes a semi-somersault of Dzhanibekov, the causes of which can be both the action of external forces and a decrease in the kinetic moment of one of the bodies. If the body has enough energy, then it finishes the somersault, and if not, then there is a transition to another type of interaction.

Tidal accelerations, and hence the tidal wave forces, vary inversely with the cube (if only the first derivative is taken) of the distance, which distinguishes their action against the action of the gravitational attraction forces, which depend on the inverse proportion of the square of the distance. This served to understand the action of tidal forces as an additional curvature of space near massive objects by the General Theory of Relativity. A. Einstein did not understand that the displacement of the orbit of Mercury occurs not only because of the massiveness of the Sun, but also because of its rotation. The problem solved for Mercury was not suitable for the Earth, because the speed of rotation of the Earth is much higher than the speed of rotation of Mercury. Academician A.D. Sakharov suggested that the second body should also affect its acceleration, but he did not understand that it affects its rotation.
The tidal acceleration has a factor of the form (t*ω), which, on the scale of the Universe, can be considered as the number of revolutions of photons of the relic microwave radiation since its appearance. The main conclusion from this can be drawn that the Universe is not infinite and when reaching (t*ω)< 1, the Universe will begin to collapse.

The gravitational constant (G) may change, as it was calculated for other purposes. This is taken into account by introducing (G1), (G2)…(Gn) for different orders of derivatives.

In accordance with this law, the spirals of galaxies and the universe are formed. In the figure [Fig.3] shows the formation of a spiral by two cosmic bodies with different angular velocities of rotation. The body And extends to the body In a force of attraction Fпр and gravity tidal wave Fпв, the body is attracted to the body And the force of mutual attraction Fпр, but is repelled by the power of the tidal wave Fпв (this force is sometimes mistakenly take for antigravity). An important feature of the joint motion of two bodies is that a body with a lower rotation speed will always catch up with a body with a higher rotation speed and at the same time they both move relative to the physical vacuum and other bodies.

 

Conclusion.
Both in the nature of its action and in its main manifestations, gravitational induction is similar to electromagnetic induction and is subject to the action of its own laws. One of the defining laws may be the law «Interaction of rotating bodies». This law allows us to take a new look at many issues that were previously impossible to solve (solving the three-body problem, creating gravitational thrusters, gravitational locators, gravitational lags, media separators, understanding the nature of «black holes», ball lightning and radiation emissions, etc.).)

The law (hypothesis): Interaction of rotating bodies:
In the interaction of two rotating bodies having a common plane of rotation, in a body whose gravitational field rotates at a lower speed, tidal waves are induced by another body, the result of which is an increase in the speed of rotation of the body and its attraction to another body, and in a body whose gravitational field rotates at a higher speed, tidal waves are induced by another body, the result of which is a decrease in the speed of rotation of the body and its repulsion from the other body.

Bibliographic list:

1. E. I. Butikov, A. S. Kondratiev Physics. Book 1. Mechanics. — M.: Nauka, 1994. — 138 p.;
2. Piskunov N. S. Differential and integral calculus for higher education institutions. vol. 1; 13th edition; Nauka; 1985.

 

The effect of a tidal wave on the Earth’s climate (Hypothesis).

Hypothesis.

Introduction.

I. Newton’s law, formulated as the law of universal gravitation, does not fully cover the interaction of bodies in nature. In addition to the forces of attraction, there is also the force of repulsion, which is present if the bodies have rotation in relation to each other, and most bodies in nature are such. In addition, if one body is moved in the direction of another body, that other body will be repelled by an additional force, without being released from the mutual attraction.
This theory of gravitational induction is very similar to the theory of electromagnetic induction. Here there is a movement of the body in the gravitational field. To change the potential in the gravitational field, it is necessary to expend energy (force momentum).
In any body located in the gravitational field, tidal phenomena occur due to the difference in the distance of the points of the body from the source of gravity (Fig.1). As an example, the interaction of two bodies with hydrospheres similar to the earth is considered.

 

.

Fig. 1 Occurrence of tidal waves in stationary bodies.

When finding the bodies (1) in the gravitational field of the body (2) body surface (1 ) there are tidal waves (3) and (5) characterized by heightened acceleration (3) in the illuminated part and low in the shadow(5).
Tidal waves arise as a result of the action of gravitational waves, reflecting the interference pattern of the superposition of gravitational oscillations from an infinite set of massive bodies. To analyze the interaction, it is enough to consider the tidal waves of two bodies, but in the real picture of the interaction of two bodies, the common center of mass moves in the gravitational fields of many other bodies.
The author suggests that gravitational waves arise as elastic vibrations of the physical vacuum when photons of the relic microwave radiation are repelled by baryonic matter, while the baryonic matter is carried away by the physical vacuum. This happens due to the fact that the speed of rotation of the photon is much higher than the speed of the electron interacting with it, which is in connection with the atoms of matter [6]. Gravitational waves emit all massive bodies, not just those moving in an accelerated and asymmetric manner, as the modern theory of gravity suggests. Accelerated and asymmetric motion only changes the phase of gravitational oscillations. The displacement of photons from the line connecting massive bodies, which occurs in the process of oscillations, is the cause of the mutual attraction of bodies that move in the direction of the resulting low pressure.
When the repulsive force of the body (1) acts on the body (2), which will occur if the body (1) is moved towards the body (2) by an external force, the tidal wave on the shadow side (6) exceeds the tidal wave on the illuminated side (4). It is the gravitational waves that come into play, as there is an asymmetric accelerated motion of the body (1) in the direction of the body (2). Due to the displacement of the tidal wave, the centers of mass of the bodies are shifted relative to the geometric centers. The displacement of the center of mass occurs at the level of atomic structures and bodies of any substance are subject to this phenomenon, but the size of this displacement depends on the plastic and elastic properties of both bodies and, above all, on the composition of their surfaces.

Relevance.

To date, there is no explanation for the change of climatic periods in the history of the Earth. M. Milankovich (1879-1958, g.) put forward the hypothesis that the change of periods occurs due to the peculiarities of the Earth’s orbit relative to the Sun, as well as the peculiarities of the solar orbit [5, p. 23]. Existing observations of the ice temperature in Antarctica clearly indicate the influence of a solar cycle with a period of about 100,000 years, which is superimposed on a cycle with a period of about 26,000 years, which presumably occurs due to the features of the precession movement of the Earth with a precession period. The real reason for the appearance of a cycle with a period of 26,000 years is the influence of the precessional motion of the Earth, which occurs under the influence of tidal waves that occur primarily in the atmosphere and hydrosphere of the Earth when it rotates in the gravitational field of the Sun.
We are most familiar with the phenomenon of tidal forces on the tides at sea. Better understand the impact of tides on the Earth’s orbit allows you to graph temperature of the ice cores of Greenland , is represented in the drawing (Fig. 2). Similar charts are available for Antarctica, but widely they are large scale and less clear [5, c. 28].

Fig. 2 Graph of temperatures of ice cores in Greenland.

The graph is publicly available on the Wikipedia website at the link shown in the drawing. The characteristic points and the corresponding time points of the precessional rotation of the Earth are plotted by the author. Tidal phenomena on the Earth, combined with its rotation around its axis, push it away from the Sun at the present time and will push it away until the forces of attraction prevail over the forces of repulsion. This happens because the kinetic energy of the Earth’s rotation is converted into the potential energy of its rise in orbit. As the kinetic energy of rotation decreases due to tidal phenomena, the repulsive forces will weaken. In the modern era, the Earth is at a point similar to the one that was a precession cycle ago and is approaching the moment (1/4 T).The tidal wave reduces its lag from the direction of the Sun. The sun has its own rotation around its axis. The rotation period of its outer shell is approximately 25 days.
At the moment of time (1 / 4 T), the repulsive forces of the Earth change to the forces of attraction of the Sun. The tidal wave begins to reduce the lag from the direction of the Sun. This event is accompanied by a nod of the earth’s axis towards the Sun. The Sun begins to twist the Earth, so it becomes unstable in inertial space.
At the moment of time (1 / 2T), an aphelion occurs in the precessional motion of the Earth. The earth turns around an intermediate axis (Dzhanibekov’s somersault). The North Pole turns towards the Sun. After the end of the somersault, the Earth begins to move towards the Sun, while its rotation speed increases due to the twisting of the Sun. The tidal wave on Earth begins to outstrip the direction of the Sun.
At the moment of time (3 / 4 T ), there is a change of the acting forces from attracting to repulsive, which is accompanied by a nod of the earth’s axis from the Sun. The size of the deviation of the Earth’s axis is shown by archaeological excavations in the area of the settlement of Vrable in Southwestern Slovakia [3], conducted by scientists from the University of Kiel (Germany). The foundations of the houses of Neolithic inhabitants, which are usually oriented by the Sun, shifted over 300 years by 30 degrees, and the inhabitants lived there at the time of the efteshoks. It is possible that this event is the cause of the biblical flood.
At a point in time (T = 0) the perihelion of the Earth’s orbit is observed. Some scientists have long assumed that in 1350 BC there was a perihelion of the earth’s orbit of the precessional motion of the Earth. These were years of unprecedented adversity on Earth; crop failures in Egypt, volcanic eruptions on the island of Santorini. This event coincides with another biblical event — the passage of Moses along the bottom of the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aqaba), when «the waters of the sea parted» [4, Chapter 14], at this time Moses crossed the Red Sea on dry land in a place where the depth is now 75 meters. And this fact has already been proven; at this place, the remains of the drowned Egyptian army of pursuers were found. A sharp jump in temperatures during this period shows that such an event was possible due to special overburden phenomena that developed during that period due to the appearance of strong turbulence in the atmosphere and changes in the landscape due to the proximity of the Sun. Run-up phenomena can only explain the variable component of the drop in the water level. The main part of the drop in the water level occurred due to the outflow of inputs to the perihelion from the near-equatorial regions in the direction of the poles due to the repulsive forces of the Sun. The currents arising from the movement of water masses can be described as»trade winds». Both» trade-wind currents «and» trade-wind winds » are presumably of a common nature and change their parameters in accordance with the precessional movement of the Earth. At present, the repulsive forces of the Sun are weakening and water is returning from the circumpolar regions to the near-equatorial regions, and the water level has increased by 50-60 meters. The changing landscape explains why many ancient cities are now located on the sea floor at a depth of up to 60 meters. They were built on the seashore before the perihelion with receding water, and after the perihelion, the landscape began to be flooded by the sea and warming is not the most important factor in the advance of the ocean on land. The onset of water on land is accompanied by an increase in seismicity in areas of flooding and not vice versa. Earthquakes are the result of rising water, not the cause. Dams and only earthquake-resistant dams that block water access to the earthquake zone can save coastal cities from flooding and their construction should not be delayed. The drop in sea level in the equatorial regions will begin only after the ice age. During the Ice Age, there is an outflow of water from the circumpolar regions, which leads to the possibility of a «dry» transition between Eurasia and America in the area of the Bering Strait.
The graph shows that the total precession period is 18,800 years (not 25,675 years as is commonly assumed). This question is debatable, in the sense that during the time period when the poles were facing the Sun, there may have been no ice formation at the poles and the graph data cannot take this into account. This question should be solved by glaciologists, while it is necessary to use such data as is available.
The next event (1/4 T) that the Earth will face will be in 1350 years.
The transformation of the tidal wave in the process of precessional motion of the Earth is shown in (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3 Transformation of a tidal wave in the process of precessional motion of the Earth.

Goals, tasks.

The task is to calculate the parameters of the earth’s orbit to determine the capabilities of the Earth as a gravitational propulsion system. The aim is to prove the correctness of the hypothesis of M. Milankovich that one of the reasons for the change of climatic periods in the history of the Earth is the change in its orbit relative to the Sun.
In accordance with the law of universal gravitation, the body (2) is mutually attracted to the body (1 ) with a force that is calculated by the formula [1, p. 124]:

F2 = G*M1* M2/R^2         (1)

where:
G is the gravitational constant
M1, M2-the mass of the celestial bodies (1), (2)
R — the distance to the celestial body

since F2 = M2 * a2
Where: a2 is the acceleration of the body (2)

a2 = G*M1/R^2 (2)

Scientific novelty.

By its physical nature, tidal acceleration is the total derivative of acceleration over distance and time.
w = {f ( R , t )}` (3)
Differentiating the expression (2) by distance (for clarity, only the first derivative is taken [2, p. 106 ]), we obtain :

w2 = (da2/dR) = -2G*M1* dR/R^3   (4)

Tidal accelerations depend inversely on the cube of the distance (not on the square), and the interaction of rotating bodies is carried out by the surface masses of the bodies, so the change in the distance between the bodies can be represented as a change in the distance between two rotating masses of tidal waves, whose masses are proportional to the masses of the bodies and with radii of rotation equal to the radii of these bodies. Tidal waves are stationary, but not stationary. The velocities of tidal waves in relation to another body are proportional to the rotational velocities of the interacting bodies. The equivalent substitution allows us to formulate the formula change in the distance (δR) between these bodies, which will be the difference between the projections of the radii of rotation of the bodies on the axis connecting them.
δR = R1* cos (ω1* t+ φ1) — R2cos(ω2* t+ φ2), so

dR/dt = [R1* cos (ω1* t+ φ1) — R2cos(ω2* t+ φ2) ] /dt (5)

where:
ω1, ω2 are the angular velocities of rotation;
φ1, φ2 is the initial rotation angles;
R1 and R2 are the radii of the heavenly bodies;
Expression (5) is a complex function due to the presence of the term d cos (ω* t+ φ)/dt= — ω * sin (ω* t+ φ)
For ease of understanding, only the first derivative is taken, but in practice, derivatives of other orders can also be taken and trigonometric series made from them.

dR/dt= [ — R1*ω1* sin (ω1* t+ φ1) + R2*ω2*sin(ω2* t+ φ2)] (6)

w2 = 2G*M1*[ R1*ω1* sin (ω1* t+ φ1) — R2*ω2*sin(ω2* t+ φ2)]/R^3    (7)

For the interaction of the Earth (e)and the Sun (s), the formula (7) will take the form:

we=2 * G*Ms [ Rs* ωs sin (ω s * t +φs) — Re *ωe sin (ωe * t+ φe)] /R^3  (8)

where:
G = 6.67 10 ^-11 m^3/ kg sec^2 is the gravitational constant;
Ms= 1.98 10 ^ 30 kg -mass of the Sun;
R = 1.49 10^ 11 m -distance to the Sun;
Rs = 1.5 10^ 8 m -radius of the Sun;
Re = 6.37 10^ 6 m -the radius of the Earth;
Ts= 25*60*60*24 sec –the period of rotation of the Sun;
Te = 60*60*24 sec is the period of rotation of the Earth;
ω s= 2π/ Ts is the angular velocity of the Sun’s rotation;
ω e = 2π/ Te is the angular velocity of the Earth’s rotation ;
From the formula (8) it can be seen that for Rs *ωs-Re * ωe =0; Rs *ωs= Vs; Re * we= Ve; where Vs (Ve) are the linear velocities of the bodies ; or going to the rotation periods Rs /Ts = Re/Te, the derivative turns to «0» when the velocities of the Earth and the Sun coincide. This happens when:

Te = Re*Ts/Rs = 6370 10^6 * 25/ 1,5 10^8 = 1,06 days (9)

this period corresponds to the average orbit of the Earth, in which tidal forces do not affect the orbit. According to Kepler’s third law:

Re^3/Te^2   =Re1^3/Te1^2    (10)

Re1 =( Re^ *Te1^2/Te^2 )^ -3 (11)

Re1 =[( 1,49 10^11)^3 * (365 * 1,06)^2/ 365^2]^-3 = 154,9 million km.

It turns out that the Earth in the course of precessional motion moves away from the Sun much further than we thought, having an average orbit of 154.9 million km.
According to the temperatures of the Greenland ice cores, this moment will occur in (t2 = 1350 years) from the present moment . During this time, the orbit of the Earth will rise to (154,9 million km. — 149млн.km. =5.9 million km) with an acceleration (a), having an initial velocity (V = a*t1)
S = a * t1 *t2 + a* t2^2/2 = a * (t1 * t2 + t2^2/2) = 5,9 10^9 m.; (12)
where: t1 is the time interval from the moment of perihelion (a pronounced ridge on the graph) to the present time, which is (about 3350 years);
t2-the time interval from the present time to the moment of the Earth’s axis nod at the change of acting forces (about 1350 years), we
calculate the acceleration with which the Earth moves;

ae = S/(t1 * t2 + t2^2/2) (13)

ae = 5,9 10^9 /(60*60*24*365*)^2 * (3350 * 1350 + 1350^2/2) = 5,9 10^9/ 9,95 10^14 * 5,6 10^6 m/sec^2 = 1,05 10^-12 m/sec^2

Distance from the average orbit during a quarter of the precession period (18800/4 = 4700 years) will make up :

t = 60*60*24*365* 4700 = 1,48 10^11 sec – the time until the upper orbit is passed.

DN= 1,05 10^-12 * (2,2 10 ^ 22)/ 2 = 11,55^9 m = 11.55 million km.

No other force except tidal, it is impossible to explain such fluctuations (+/- 11.55 million km) of earth’s orbit, and the fact that they are, according to climatic periods in Earth’s history: ice age c Somerset Dzhanibekov and flood, as well as nods of the earth’s orbit when changing actors.

The heights of the orbits will be:
Hh = (154.9 + 11.55) = 166.45 million km. — altitude of the upper orbit
Hl = (154.9-11.55) = 143.35 million km. — the height of the lower orbit

For one year (tj) the Earth’s orbit is currently receding from the Sun at:
ΔH1 = a *t1* tj+ atj^2/2 = 1,05 10^ -12 * (60*60*24*365 *3350 ) * (60*60*24*365)+ 1,05 10^ -12 * (60*60*24*365)^2/2 = 1749 10^3 m.= 1749 km.

It is possible to check the obtained value in a different way, knowing that the duration of a second over 100 years increases by 1.78 msec. According to Kepler’s law;

Re1 =( Re3 *Te12/Te2 )^ -3 = (149^3 * 1,00178^2)^-3 = 149.1767 million km.

In one year, the distance will be 176700 km./100 years =1767 km. / year., which is within the accuracy range.
The values are comparable and it follows that the Earth is really moving away from the Sun at a speed of 1767 km/ year.
At present, we simply do not notice this removal, but in thousands of years the Earth will be very far from the Sun and life on it will be less comfortable.
We calculate the tidal acceleration by the formula (8):

we = 2 * 6,67 10^ -11 * 1,98 10 ^30 6,28 * 1,5 10 ^8 6,28 * 6,37 10^6/(1,49 10 ^11)^3 60*60*24 * 25 60*60*24 = 2,8 10^ -12 m/sec^2

The difference in the value of the tidal acceleration calculated by the formula (8) (2.8 10^ -12 m/sec^2) and the acceleration with which the Earth moves, calculated by the formula (13) (1.05 10^-12 m/sec^2) is explained by the fact that the first derivative must have its own gravitational constant, which is characteristic of the interaction of the Earth with the Sun:

G1 = G*ae/ we
G1 = 6,67 10^-11 * 1,05 10^-12/ 2,8 10^12 =2,5 10^-11 m^3 /kg.sec.
It is much more convenient to use the proposed «tidal wave coefficient» (kw):
kw = ae/ we ;
G1 = cpv * G ;
for the interaction of the Earth and the Sun:
to the pv =1,05 10^-12/ 2,8 10^12 = 0,375

At present, there is very little information about the solar orbit. Data is only available about the angular speed (ωs), the period of orbit (TS) and the inclination of the rotation axis to the orbital plane (ι, s).
Let’s try to calculate the parameters of the Earth’s orbit taking into account the influence of the solar orbit:

The maximum angular velocity of the Earth’s rotation will be:
ω max = ωe + ωs =1 + 0.04 = 1.04 rpm;
we is the angular velocity of the Earth’s rotation ( 1 rpm / day).);
ωs is the angular velocity of the Sun’s rotation ( 1/25 rpm / day).);

The minimum angular velocity of the Earth’s rotation will be:
ω min = ωz cos i e + ωc cos i s= 1 * 0,9354 + 0,04 * 0,992 = 0,937 volume/day.
ι e — inclination of the rotation axis to the orbital plane of Earth (23°).
s ι is the inclination of the rotation axis to the plane of the orbit of the Sun (8 deg.);

According to Kepler’s third law:
R^3/T^2 = R max^3/ T max^2 =R min^3/ T min^2;
T = 2π/ω
R max = {R w^3 * T max^2/ T w^2}-3 ={(149^3 * 1,04^2) /1^2}-3 = 152,9 million km.
R min = {R z^3 * T min^2/ T z^2}-3 = { (149^3 * 0,937 ^2)/1^2}-3 = 142,7 million km.
DNs = 152,9-142.7/2 = 5.1 million km. — distance from the average orbit.
The uppermost orbit of the Earth is 166.55 + 5.1 = 171.55 million km.
The lowest orbit of the Earth is 143.25 — 5.1 = 138.25 million km.
The ratio of radiant energy (Emax, Emin) received at different orbits (Rmin, Rmax) is inversely proportional to the square of the distances to the Sun;

расст.

Fig. 4 Image from the website (www:astronomy.ohio-state.edu). The position of the Sun is plotted by the author of this article.

Stars are attracted to the Sagittarius-A black hole only through the jumper. In accordance with the changing speed of the stars as a result of fluctuations, there are also fluctuations in the azimuthal position of the bridge. At a higher speed, it spins clockwise, and at a lower speed, it moves in the opposite direction. The approximate estimate of the amplitude of the speed fluctuations is 20-30 km / sec. with an oscillation wavelength of about 8 kiloparsecs. The position of the Sun on the chart is plotted by the author. From the analysis of the graph, it can be understood that the speed of the Sun will increase and most likely the elongation of the Earth’s orbit will increase. The degree of influence of this component has yet to be assessed, but it is very significant, as can be seen in the temperature charts of the ice cores of Antarctica. It is assumed that this component causes the main harmonic of the oscillations.

Conclusion, the results of

The gravitational constant reflects the features of a celestial body in the excitation of a tidal wave. Its formation is influenced by both interacting bodies. At the Earth it is high, and at the Moon it is several orders of magnitude lower (2.06 10^-15 m^3/kg. sec.). The moon does not have such a tidal wave due to the lack of an atmosphere and hydrosphere, and it does not have a satellite. The» tidal wave coefficient » of the Earth also depends on human activity; the creation of reservoirs, pipelines, mining, etc..

The tidal wave has a standing character for interaction with external bodies, but a traveling character relative to the surface of the body itself and has the property of converting the kinetic energy of rotation into the potential energy of the gravitational field, which means that it is possible to move in the gravitational field of another body by changing the magnitude and direction of the tidal wave,

гр.дв.ф.5

Fig. 5. The change in the distance from the Earth to the Sun as a result of precessional motion.

Figure 5 shows a graph illustrating the change in the distance from the Earth to the Sun during the precessional motion of the Earth (without taking into account the influence of the features of the solar orbit). Yellow color highlights the current idea of this movement as an annual (nutational) oscillation of the earth’s orbit. There is currently no idea of the orbit oscillation as a result of the precession of the Earth’s axis. Modern science is not able to explain the change of climatic periods in the history of the Earth. This hypothesis confirms the hypothesis of the change of climatic cycles in the history of the Earth, expressed by M. Milankovich noted that one of the reasons for the change of climatic periods is the peculiarities of the Earth’s orbit relative to the Sun and the peculiarities of the solar orbit.

Bibliographic list:

1. E. I. Butikov, A. S. Kondratiev Physics. Book 1. Mechanics. — M.: Nauka, 1994. — 138 p.;
2. N. S. Piskunov Differential and integral calculus for higher education institutions. vol. 1; 13th edition; Nauka; 1985. -560 p.;
3. Sergey Vasiliev, Archaeologists explained the turn of Neolithic buildings counterclockwise, Naked-science.ru No. 52, 2020 [Electronic resource ], Access mode URL: https://naked-science.ru/article/anthropology/arheologi-obyasnili-povorot-neoliticheskih-zdanij-protiv-chasovoj-strelki. Html, (Accessed 23.04.2020);
4. The Bible, the Synodal Translation, the Old Testament, the Book of Exodus, ch. 14 ,[Electronic resource ], Access mode URL: http://planeta.one/bible/v.htm. (Accessed 20.04.2020);
5. Yakov Golovnya, Stability of the Earth’s climate, climate history, methods of paleoclimatology, Dochlayer.ru, [Electronic resource ], Access mode URL:, https://docplayer.ru/113894621-9-istoriya-klimata-metody-paleoklimatologii-ustoychivost-klimata-zemli.html , (Accessed 23.04.2020);
6. A.V. Nechaev, Interaction of rotating bodies, SCI-ARTICLE.RU No. 53 (July) 2020 [Electronic resource ], URL access mode:http://sci-article.ru/stat.php?i=1601963571, (Accessed 27.04.2020);
7. Igor Sokalsky, Dark matter, Chemistry and life No. 11, 2006 [Electronic resource] Access mode URL: https://textarchive.ru/c-2347804.html. Graph, Calculated and measured speed of rotation of stars as a function of the distance to the center of the galaxy (image from the website www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu), (Accessed 23.04.2020).

Гравитационный двигатель типа «Стрелец-А».

Черная дыра Стрелец-А представляет из себя отработанный миллиардами лет совершенный гравитационный двигатель. Движущими силами в нем выступают приливные силы двух видов материй барионной и черной. Барионная материя отталкивает горизонт событий черной дыры с одного полюса в сторону черной материи, а черная материя увлекает этот горизонт в сторону барионной материи, но другого полюса.  В результате происходит закручивание ротора черной дыры Стрелец-А с использованием энергии ядерного распада на горизонте событий прошлого. Основная масса продуктов распада в виде альфа-излучения поглощается ротором черной дыры. Одиночные адроны в черную дыру попасть не могут, так как отталкиваются и ускоряются гравитационным полем черной дыры и тем самым экранируя влияние гравитационного поля черной дыры на барионную материю рукавов галактики.

Энергией на которой работает двигатель является физический вакуум, который отдает свою энергию радиационным излучениям (адронам), выходящим с горизонта событий прошлого черной дыры. Присоединив к себе фотоны, адроны снижают скорость и превращаются в водород.

Стрелец-А

Из водорода происходит вся  барионная материя, движущаяся в центр галактики. Притяжение барионной материи происходит только через перемычку, прямого притяжения к черной дыре галактики нет.

Конечным продуктом деятельности двигателя является джет радиационного излучения тяжелых элементов с горизонта событий будущего, который является экспансией барионной материи по типу ветвления множеств Мандельброта. Из одной галактики возникает не менее двух галактик.

Весьма приблизительные расчеты показывают, что такой двигатель может вращаться со скоростью 86 млрд. об/сек.

К вопросу о красном смещении.

Гипотеза.

Цитата:
«Красное смещение — наблюдаемое для всех далёких источников (галактики, квазары) понижение частот излучения, свидетельствующее о динамическом удалении этих источников друг от друга и, в частности, от нашей Галактики, т.е. о нестационарности (расширении) Метагалактики.
Красное смещение для галактик было обнаружено американским астрономом Весто Слайфером в 1912—1914 годах; в 1929 году Эдвин Хаббл открыл, что красное смещение для далёких галактик больше, чем для близких, и возрастает приблизительно пропорционально расстоянию (закон красного смещения, или закон Хаббла). Несмотря на то, что, как выяснилось позже, проводимые им измерения оказались неточными и, по сути, не имеющими отношения к космологическому красному смещению (расширение Вселенной начинает сказываться на гораздо больших расстояниях), как показали более поздние измерения, «открытый» им закон действительно имеет место.

Хотя предлагались различные объяснения наблюдаемого смещения спектральных линий, например, гипотеза утомлённого света, только общая теория относительности даёт непротиворечивую картину, объясняющую все наблюдения. Данное объяснение этого явления является общепринятым.

рис. 1 смещение спектра

Сущность явления
Часто космологическое красное смещение связывают с эффектом Доплера, который связывают с движением галактик друг относительно друга. Однако согласно ОТО, космологическое красное смещение происходит несколько по-другому: оно связано с расширением пространства. В наблюдаемое красное смещение от галактик вносят вклад как космологическое красное смещение из-за расширения пространства Вселенной, так и красное или синее смещения эффекта Доплера вследствие собственного движения галактик. При этом на больших расстояниях вклад космологического красного смещения становится преобладающим[1]».(сайт Википедия)

Нигде не сказано о том, что скорость света в момент большого взрыва была другой, чем сейчас. Вспомним основную формулу ОТО:

Е = m*c^2
где:
m-масса тела;
c-скорость света;
Скорость тела во вселенной ограничена скоростью света, но в момент большого взрыва она ограничивалась одним значением, а сейчас она ограничивается совсем другим значением. Скорость света невозможно превысить физически, потому что  распадется  вещество при взаимодействии с фотонами микроволнового излучения, которые вращаются с околосветовыми скоростями. Раньше эта скорость была меньше, так как энергия фотонов  была больше. Свет появился на низкой скорости и с течением времени стал её увеличивать. Зависимость скорости света от плотности физического вакуума обратно пропорциональная: чем выше плотность физического вакуума, тем меньше скорость света в нем  . Сейчас энергия фотона меньше за счет уменьшения скорости его вращения, поэтому уменьшилось его влияние на скоростные ограничения на движение вещества в физическом вакууме. Если 13,5 млрд. лет назад к, примеру, скорость света была 200 000 км/сек., то сейчас 300 000 км./сек. Со скоростью 200 000 в наше время свет не летает, поэтому красное смещение необходимо приводить к одному моменту измерений и учитывать изменение скорости света во времени. Если получили смещение 100 000 км/ сек. от объекта возрастом 13,5 млрд. лет, то это значит, что смещения нет. Вся логика подсказывает, что в плотной вселенной скорость света не могла быть выше чем сейчас и в дальнейшем она будет только увеличиваться, потому что плотность физического вакуума уменьшается.

Взаимодействие физического вакуума с черной и барионной материей.

Гипотеза. По современным представлениям физический вакуум является средой в которой распространяются гравитационные волны. По мысли автора через гравитационные волны физические тела осуществляют  взаимодействие между собой. Все физические тела оказывают влияние на колебания физического вакуума и тем самым взаимодействуют между собой, изменяя параметры колебаний физического вакуума, которые с новыми параметрами образуют новую волну. Тем самым гравитационные волны присущи самому существованию материи и являются её неотъемлемой частью. Физический вакуум состоит из фотонов реликтового микроволнового излучения, которые находятся в состоянии слабого гравитационного взаимодействия, а это значит, что они находятся на орбитах , соответствующих закону Всемирного притяжения И.Ньютона относительно других фотонов и совершают колебания около этих орбит под воздействием приливных сил от всех других участников взаимодействия. Фотоны образовались в результате взрыва ротора черной дыры протогалактики и с тех пор распространяются со скоростью инфляции (рис.1).

рис. 1 наша вселенная

Они невидимы невооруженным глазом, так как их скорость вращения  выше световой, поэтому их иногда называют «черной энергией». Скорость их вращения и определяет скорость света.

Существует два вида материи: барионная и черная, разница в них в том числе и по взаимодействию с физическим вакуумом. Барионная материя взаимодействует с физическим вакуумом посредством присоединенного к нуклонам атомов вихря электрона, который отталкивает фотон и устремляется за ним, в силу того, что скорость вращения вихря электрона меньше чем фотона. В результате изменяются параметры колебаний фотонов и возникают новые гравитационные волны вокруг барионной материи. Гравитационные волны выталкивают фотоны с линий, которые соединяют физические тела, что является причиной взаимного притяжения.

рис.2 движение черной и барионной материй.

Черная материя представляет из себя радиационные гамма-излучения — это  тороидальные вихри адронов, скорость вращения вихря которых, выше чем у фотона. Первоначально они образовывались из излучений черной дыры протовселенной до большого взрыва, а в настоящее время образуются при реакции ядерного распада на горизонте событий прошлого черных дыр и от распада радиационных излучений сверхплотных элементов с горизонта событий будущего. После распада вещества, излучения  следуют (радиально, что отражено в их названии) в ускоряющем гравитационном поле черной дыры, так как отталкиваются от гравитационного поля черной дыры, имеющего меньшую скорость вращения (рис.2). Адроны притягивают физический вакуум, они его поглощают с образованием различных атомов водорода. Это явление вызывает экранирующее действие на гравитацию, поэтому звезды с разных рукавов галактик не притягиваются, так как между ними находятся радиационные излучения. Водород, образующийся на выходе из галактик является основой для образования звезд (рис.3).

рис.3 образование водорода и звезд.

Образовавшиеся звезды притягиваются через более старые звезды к оконечности перемычки черной дыры. Непосредственно к черной дыре звезды начинают  притягиваться только достигнув перемычки, что и является причиной равенства скоростей в цепи звезд на расстояниях больших радиуса перемычки. При достижении перемычки притяжение приобретает лавинный характер, так как в действие вступают приливные силы обратно пропорциональные кубу расстояния.

Расширение вселенной идет через образование новых галактик в местах, куда добираются джеты радиационных излучений с горизонта событий будущего черных дыр. Из одной галактики образуется как минимум две, из двух уже четыре и т. д .

Спасти тонущие города мира.

В настоящее время по всему миру известно много городов древности, которые были затоплены в силу разных обстоятельств: Александрия, Гераклион, Тир (Сур), Диоскурия, Куба, Павлопетри и т. д.. Причины затопления называются разные и чаще всего это землетрясения. В данной статье выдвигается гипотеза, что общей причиной затопления древних городов является изменение формы гидросферы Земли в результате её прецессии.
Некоторые ученые давно предполагали, что в 1350 году до н.э. происходил перигелий земной орбиты прецессионного движения Земли. Это были годы небывалых невзгод на Земле; неурожаи в Египте, извержения вулкана острова Санторин, сильные землетрясения. Это событие совпадает по времени с библейским событием — проходом Моисея по дну Красного моря (Акабский залив), когда «расступились воды морские» [4,Гл. 14], в это время Моисей посуху Красное море перешел в месте, где сейчас глубина 75 метров. И этот факт уже доказан; на этом месте найдены останки утонувшей египетской армии преследователей. Оставалось только неясным, как можно было пройти по такому глубокому месту.

лед

Резкий скачек температур в этот период (рис.1,гребень в момент Т=0 на графике температур ледовых кернов Гренландии) показывает, что такое событие было возможно по особым сгонно-нагонным явлениям, сложившимся в тот период из-за появления сильной турбулентности в атмосфере, но не один отлив сделал возможным исход евреев из Египта. Была еще очень важная причина, которую никто до сих пор не заметил-это изменение ландшафта местности в месте перехода, связанное с моментом перигелия.
Изменение ландшафта местности из-за близости Солнца, было очень значительным и объясняет, почему многие города древности находятся сейчас на морском дне. Они были построены на берегу моря до перигелия при поднимающейся суше (уходящей воде) или близко к моменту перигелия, когда опускание суши не было значительным, а по прошествию перигелия ландшафт начал стремительно опускаться в море и сейчас продолжает опускаться и потепление — не самый главный фактор наступления океана на сушу. Степень влияния разных факторов на глубину опускания различна и подлежит дальнейшему исследованию. Сейчас основной причиной считаются землетрясения, но землетрясения происходят не сами по себе. В свете определенного времени перигелия земной орбиты, можно сказать, что существует значительное изменение формы гидросферы Земли, вызванное разной удаленностью Земли от Солнца в перигелии (1350 г. до н. э.) и афелии (10750 г. до н. э.). В момент перигелия оголяются значительные области суши расположенные вдоль экватора, где и зарождались первые цивилизации. Вода выдавливается в полярные области земного шара. Это явление аналогично пассатам, но действующее на гидросферу. Города и селения строились около воды или в устьях рек, где было достаточно пресной воды. Сооружения строились в некотором отдалении от воды, чтобы обезопасить их от волн. С течением времени, в силу удаления Земли от Солнца, сила отталкивания Солнца начала убывать, вода начала возвращаться в экваториальные области и суша начала затапливаться  морем. К настоящему времени уровень воды поднялся до 40-50 метров относительно исторического слоя времен перигелия. Эти глубины стали доступны для обследования сравнительно недавно да и доступны они только исследователям со специальной водолазной подготовкой. Список затопленных городов весьма внушителен. Один из самых известных является Александрия. Причиной затопления города считается землетрясение 365 года нашей эры, но землетрясение только обозначило общую тенденцию на погружение суши. Особую тревогу вызывает состояние мировой жемчужины-города Венеции, нет надежд, что море начнет отступать, а весь опыт показывает, что погружению способствуют сильные и неожиданные землетрясения. Неожиданные, так как землетрясений там никогда не было.
Дамбы со значительным запасом по высоте и рассчитанные на высокую сейсмичность, могут спасти прибрежные города от затопления и медлить с их строительством нельзя. Подъём суши в приэкваториальных областях (за счет вытеснение воды) начнется только после ледникового периода, когда Земля начнет приближаться к Солнцу.

Гравитация. Стягивание тел физическим вакуумом.

В 2016 году было открыто явление гравитационных волн и признано, что средой в которой они распространяются является физический вакуум.

Все статические и динамические взаимодействия между телами осуществляются гравитационными волнами, но наблюдаются некоторые особенности статического взаимодействия, которое происходит из-за стягивания тел физическим вакуумом.

Стягивание тел физическим вакуумом происходит по двум причинам:
— вследствие взаимодействия вращающихся тел; фотонов микроволнового излучения и физических тел, электроны которых взаимодействуют с фотонами;
—   вследствие теплового скручивание фотонов микроволнового излучения энергией получаемой ими от физических тел.

Взаимодействия вращающихся тел; фотонов микроволнового излучения и физических тел.
Фотоны взаимодействуют с физическими телами через электроны, представляющие из себя вихри присоединенные к нуклонам и обладающие значительно меньшей скоростью. В результате взаимодействия вращающихся тел фотоны от физического тела отталкиваются, а физическое тело увлекается фотонами вслед за ними. Фотоны при этом снижают скорость вращения и отталкивают более дальние от физического тела фотоны, одновременно устремляясь за ними. Это действие происходит в упругой среде и приводит к возникновению колебаний с частотой собственного резонанса, которая составляет 160,4 ГГц. Гравитационные волны таким образом вызывает само существование материи, а не только ускоренное ассиметричное движение тел. Ускоренное ассиметричное движение тел вызывает лишь изменение длины волны (модуляцию), которая несет информацию о дополнительном движении тел сверх взаимного притяжения. Таким образом частота 160,4 ГГц. выступает в роли несущей частоты гравитационных волн и её излучают все физические тела.
Приливная волна, возникающая в фотонах воздействует на все фотоны вселенной и идет постоянное перераспределение орбит фотонов во вселенной в соответствии с изменившимся положением даже одного фотона (рис.1).

рис.1 притяжение.1

На рисунке изображены физические тела (А) и (В) имеющие малую скорость вращения. Фотоны (F) примыкающие к физическим телам (розовый цвет) имеют скорость вращения меньше чем более дальние от физических тел фотоны (красный цвет). Фотоны уходят с линии соединяющей тела, увеличивая вакуум.  Тела (А) и (В) притягиваются друг к другу по направлению оси их соединяющей. Фотоны микроволнового излучения представляют из себя вихри материи, вращающейся со сверхсветовой скоростью, поэтому они невидимы. В момент, когда их скорость снижается до световой они становятся видимы, но окружающий физический вакуум не позволяет длительно находится фотонам  на досветовой скорости, увеличивая скорость их вращения. Физический вакуум является «черной энергией», которая находится в едином взаимодействии в пределах вселенной, поэтому снизить скорость вращения отдельного фотона можно только на очень короткий промежуток времени.

Стягивание физических тел за счет скручивания фотонов микроволнового излучения энергией получаемой ими от физических тел.
На (рис.2) изображен пример стягивания физических тел за счет скручивания фотонов. В части а) рис.1 тела А и В находятся на исходных позициях, температура фотонов физического вакуума между ними одинакова и  T= 2,725 К.  Это очень низкая температура и любой нагрев повышает скорость вращения вихрей фотонов, увеличивая их плотность и уменьшает радиус вращения.

рис.2 притяжение

В части б) рис.1 произошел прогрев фотонов до температуры Т> 2,725 K и тела притянулись за счет скручивания фотонов. Фотоны уходят с линии соединяющей тела, отталкиваясь от физических тел и от более холодных фотонов, увеличивая вакуум. Тела (А) и (В) притягиваются друг к другу по направлению оси их соединяющей. Сила притяжения должна зависеть от температуры тел. Эта зависимость пока не выявлена, но она должна быть. Гравитационная постоянная имеет зависимость от температуры взаимодействующих объектов, но для существующей практики это пока не является важным.

Физический вакуум представляет из себя фотоны (F) микроволнового излучения. В качестве их могут выступать сверхсветовые вихри, образовавшиеся после взрыва ротора черной дыры протовселенной. Другого кандидата на эту роль в настоящее время не видится. Это — «черная энергия», невидимая, обладающая малой массой, но огромной энергией вращения. Фотоны находятся на устойчивых орбитах относительно друг друга в  состоянии слабого гравитационного взаимодействия.

Температура физического вакуума невысока (Т= 2,725 К), поэтому контакт с любым материальным телом, температура которых значительно выше, вызывает повышение энергии физического вакуума, что вызывает скручивание вихрей и стягивание их в сторону более низких температур. В силу диффузионного проникновения физического вакуума в материальные тела за скручивающимися вихрями устремляются и материальные тела.

Любое действие силы на одно тело вызывает изменение длины гравитационной волны: как на отталкивание другого тела (уменьшение длины волны), так и на притяжение другого тела (увеличение длины волны). Эти изменения длин гравитационных волн вызывают воздействие на другие тела, которые являются дополнительной нагрузкой действующей силы в виде инерционной силы противодействия. Нагрузкой является и сам физический вакуум. Взаимодействия в микромире физического вакуума очень жесткие и подчиняются закону обратных квадратов, что при малых  расстояниях вызывает большие ускорения.

Данная статья не объясняет собственно явление гравитации, истоки которой уходят к диффузионному взаимодействию бесконечно малых частиц материи и созданию вихрей, из волн которых состоят вихри фотонов, а объясняет только возникновение гравитационного притяжения между физическими телами, образование гравитационных волн и  взаимодействий вращающихся тел.